Funerary Monument to Sir John Hawkwood - Wikipedia
Sir John Hawkwood (born c. 1320, died 1394) was an English mercenary or condottiere who was active in 14th century Italy. The French chronicler Jean Froissart knew him as Jean Haccoude and the Italian statesman, Niccolò Machiavelli , as Giovanni

Sir John Hawkwood (born c. 1320, died 1394) was an English mercenary or condottiere who was active in 14th century Italy. The French chronicler Jean Froissart knew him as Jean Haccoude and the Italian statesman, Niccolò Machiavelli , as Giovanni Acuto . Hawkwood served first the Pope and then various factions in Italy for over 30 years, amassing a fortune in land and gold.

Hawkwood's youth is shrouded in tales and legends and it is not exactly clear how he became a soldier. According to the most accepted tales, he was a second son of a tanner in Sible Hedingham in Essex and was apprenticed in London. Other tales also claim that he was a tailor before he became a soldier.

Hawkwood served in the English army in France in the first stages of the Hundred Years' War under Edward III . According to different traditions Hawkwood fought in the battles of Crécy and/or Poitiers (1356), but there is no direct evidence of either. Different traditions maintain that the King or Edward, the Black Prince knighted him. It has also been speculated that he assumed the title with the support of his soldiers. His service ended after the Treaty of Brétigny in 1360.

E-ISBN-13 : 9780801888809
E-ISBN-10 : 0801888808
Print-ISBN-13 : 9780801883231
Print-ISBN-10 : 0801883237

Page Count : 480
Illustrations : 8 line drawings, 8 halftones
Publication Year : 2006


John Hawkwood: An English Mercenary in Fourteenth-Century Italy by William Caferro (review)

Sir John Hawkwood (born c. 1320, died 1394) was an English mercenary or condottiere who was active in 14th century Italy. The French chronicler Jean Froissart knew him as Jean Haccoude and the Italian statesman, Niccolò Machiavelli , as Giovanni Acuto . Hawkwood served first the Pope and then various factions in Italy for over 30 years, amassing a fortune in land and gold.

Hawkwood's youth is shrouded in tales and legends and it is not exactly clear how he became a soldier. According to the most accepted tales, he was a second son of a tanner in Sible Hedingham in Essex and was apprenticed in London. Other tales also claim that he was a tailor before he became a soldier.

Hawkwood served in the English army in France in the first stages of the Hundred Years' War under Edward III . According to different traditions Hawkwood fought in the battles of Crécy and/or Poitiers (1356), but there is no direct evidence of either. Different traditions maintain that the King or Edward, the Black Prince knighted him. It has also been speculated that he assumed the title with the support of his soldiers. His service ended after the Treaty of Brétigny in 1360.

E-ISBN-13 : 9780801888809
E-ISBN-10 : 0801888808
Print-ISBN-13 : 9780801883231
Print-ISBN-10 : 0801883237

Page Count : 480
Illustrations : 8 line drawings, 8 halftones
Publication Year : 2006


John Hawkwood: An English Mercenary in Fourteenth-Century Italy by William Caferro (review)

HAWKWOOD , Sir JOHN de ( d . 1394), general, second son of Gilbert de Hawkwood of Hedingham Sibil, Hinckford, Essex, a tanner, was born in that place early in the fourteenth century. Gilbert de Hawkwood was a man of substance and gentle blood, the family having held land at Hedingham Sibil since the reign of John. The tradition that Hawkwood began life as a tailor in London probably originated in Italy, and from a corruption of his name, which Matteo Villani spells Gianni della Guglia (John of the Needle). He is also said to have been impressed for the French wars, and to have served as an archer in the army of Edward III.

Early in March he escorted the papal ambassadors (the Cardinal of Amiens and the Archbishops of Pampeluna and Narbonne) to Sarzana, where Bernabò Visconti met them and opened the negotiations in form. They were interrupted by the death of Gregory XI (27 March), but the new pope, Urban VI, made peace on 24 July.

In April 1378 Bernabò Visconti sent Hawkwood and Count Lucius Landau with a force of English and Germans into the Veronese, to claim in right of his wife, Beatrice, the inheritance of her brother, Can Signore della Scala of Verona ( d . 1371). They formed an intrenched camp under the walls of Verona, but were withdrawn on payment of four hundred thousand florins of gold, and promise of an annual tribute of forty thousand for six years.

Sir John Hawkwood (born c. 1320, died 1394) was an English mercenary or condottiere who was active in 14th century Italy. The French chronicler Jean Froissart knew him as Jean Haccoude and the Italian statesman, Niccolò Machiavelli , as Giovanni Acuto . Hawkwood served first the Pope and then various factions in Italy for over 30 years, amassing a fortune in land and gold.

Hawkwood's youth is shrouded in tales and legends and it is not exactly clear how he became a soldier. According to the most accepted tales, he was a second son of a tanner in Sible Hedingham in Essex and was apprenticed in London. Other tales also claim that he was a tailor before he became a soldier.

Hawkwood served in the English army in France in the first stages of the Hundred Years' War under Edward III . According to different traditions Hawkwood fought in the battles of Crécy and/or Poitiers (1356), but there is no direct evidence of either. Different traditions maintain that the King or Edward, the Black Prince knighted him. It has also been speculated that he assumed the title with the support of his soldiers. His service ended after the Treaty of Brétigny in 1360.

Sir John Hawkwood (born c. 1320, died 1394) was an English mercenary or condottiere who was active in 14th century Italy. The French chronicler Jean Froissart knew him as Jean Haccoude and the Italian statesman, Niccolò Machiavelli , as Giovanni Acuto . Hawkwood served first the Pope and then various factions in Italy for over 30 years, amassing a fortune in land and gold.

Hawkwood's youth is shrouded in tales and legends and it is not exactly clear how he became a soldier. According to the most accepted tales, he was a second son of a tanner in Sible Hedingham in Essex and was apprenticed in London. Other tales also claim that he was a tailor before he became a soldier.

Hawkwood served in the English army in France in the first stages of the Hundred Years' War under Edward III . According to different traditions Hawkwood fought in the battles of Crécy and/or Poitiers (1356), but there is no direct evidence of either. Different traditions maintain that the King or Edward, the Black Prince knighted him. It has also been speculated that he assumed the title with the support of his soldiers. His service ended after the Treaty of Brétigny in 1360.

E-ISBN-13 : 9780801888809
E-ISBN-10 : 0801888808
Print-ISBN-13 : 9780801883231
Print-ISBN-10 : 0801883237

Page Count : 480
Illustrations : 8 line drawings, 8 halftones
Publication Year : 2006


John Hawkwood: An English Mercenary in Fourteenth-Century Italy by William Caferro (review)

HAWKWOOD , Sir JOHN de ( d . 1394), general, second son of Gilbert de Hawkwood of Hedingham Sibil, Hinckford, Essex, a tanner, was born in that place early in the fourteenth century. Gilbert de Hawkwood was a man of substance and gentle blood, the family having held land at Hedingham Sibil since the reign of John. The tradition that Hawkwood began life as a tailor in London probably originated in Italy, and from a corruption of his name, which Matteo Villani spells Gianni della Guglia (John of the Needle). He is also said to have been impressed for the French wars, and to have served as an archer in the army of Edward III.

Early in March he escorted the papal ambassadors (the Cardinal of Amiens and the Archbishops of Pampeluna and Narbonne) to Sarzana, where Bernabò Visconti met them and opened the negotiations in form. They were interrupted by the death of Gregory XI (27 March), but the new pope, Urban VI, made peace on 24 July.

In April 1378 Bernabò Visconti sent Hawkwood and Count Lucius Landau with a force of English and Germans into the Veronese, to claim in right of his wife, Beatrice, the inheritance of her brother, Can Signore della Scala of Verona ( d . 1371). They formed an intrenched camp under the walls of Verona, but were withdrawn on payment of four hundred thousand florins of gold, and promise of an annual tribute of forty thousand for six years.

The Funerary Monument (or Equestrian Monument ) to Sir John Hawkwood [2] is a fresco by Paolo Uccello , commemorating English condottiero John Hawkwood , commissioned in 1436 for Florence 's Basilica di Santa Maria del Fiore . The fresco is an important example of art commemorating a soldier-for-hire who fought in the Italian peninsula and is a seminal work in the development of perspective .

The politics of the commissioning and recommissioning of the fresco have been analyzed and debated by historians. The fresco is often cited as a form of " Florentine propaganda" for its appropriation of a foreign soldier of fortune as a Florentine hero and for its implied promise to other condottieri of the potential rewards of serving Florence. [3] The fresco has also been interpreted as a product of internal political competition between the Albizzi and Medici factions in Renaissance Florence , due to the latter's modification of the work's symbolism and iconography during its recommissioning.

The fresco is the oldest extant and authenticated work of Uccello, from a relatively well-known aspect of his career compared to the periods before and after its creation. The fresco has been restored (once by Lorenzo di Credi , who added the frame) and is now detached from the wall; it has been repositioned twice in modern times.

Sir John Hawkwood (L'Acuto) Story of a Condottiere; Translated from the Italian of John Temple-Leader, Giuseppe Esq: By Giuseppe Scott (Classic Reprint)


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